Lesson 1, Topic 1
In Progress

Vertical Jumps

The high jump is divided into the following four phases:

  • Approach
  • Take off
  • Flight
  • Landing.

Objectives

  • To generate optimum (not maximum) speed

Technical Characteristics

  • Approach run is J-shaped – straight at first (3-6 strides) then curved(4-5 strides)
  • Foot plant for the first strides is on the ball of the foot
  • Body lean is moderately forward for the first strides
  • Velocity is increased continuously throughout the approach.

Approach Phase – Final Strides

Objective

  • To prepare for the takeoff

Technical Characteristics

  • Stride frequency is increased continuously
  • The body leans inward, the angle is dependent on the approach speed
  • Forward lean is reduced and body is upright
  • The Centre of mass is lowered moderately in the penultimate stride
  • An active drive of the right foot in the penultimate stride.

Take Off Phase

Objectives

  • To maximize vertical velocity and to initiate necessary rotations for bar clearance

Technical Characteristics

  • Foot plant is active, quick and flat with a ‘down and back’ motion (1)
  • Take off the foot is placed naturally
  • Time on the ground and the bending of the take-off leg are both minimized
  • The knee of the free leg is driven up until the thigh is parallel with the ground
  • The body is vertical at the end of the take-off (2).

Flight Phase

Objective

  • To clear the bar

Technical Characteristics

  • Take off position is held “freeze” as the body gains height (1)
  • Leading arm is fixed or reaches up – across and over the bar
  • Hips are raised over the bar by arching the back and lowering legs and head
  • Knees are spread to allow more body arch.

Landing Phase

Objective

  • To land safely and avoid injuries

Technical Characteristics

  • Head is drawn towards the chest
  • Landing is on the shoulders and back
  • Knees are apart for the touchdown.

Pole vault

APPROACH, PLANT, TAKEOFF & PENETRATION, ROCK-BACK & STRETCH/TURN, BAR CLEARANCE & LANDING.

  • In the approach and plant phases the vaulter accelerates to maximum controllable/transferable speed and smoothly positions the pole for the takeoff.
  • In the takeoff and penetration phase energy from the approach is transferred to the pole.
  • In the rock back and stretch/turn phase energy is stored in the pole then utilized to raise the vaulter.
  • This is assisted by additional muscle actions.
  • The bar clearance phase is the completion of the vault and the start of preparation for a safe landing.

Grip and Carry position

OBJECTIVES

  • To hold the pole correctly for the approach run and plant.

TECHNICAL CHARACTERISTICS

  • Hands are shoulder-width apart.
  • The right hand is higher on the pole.
  • Both arms are bent, the right hand is close to the hip.
  • The tip of the pole is above head height.
  • Elbow of the left arm points to the side.
  • The upper body is upright

Plant Phase

Objectives

  • To position the pole in preparation for the takeoff while minimizing the loss of speed.

Technical characteristics

  • The tip of the pole is lowered gradually and smoothly in the last third of the approach.
  • Plant commences on the penultimate contact of the left foot with a forward push of the pole. (1)
  • The right arm is raised quickly, the hand pushing close to the head at the contact of the right foot. (2)
  • The body is upright with the shoulders square to the box.

Takeoff Phase

Objective

  • To transfer maximum energy to the pole.

Technical characteristics

  • The foot plant is active and on the entire sole.
  • The body is completely stretched with the right arm fully extended.
  • The Upper (right) hand is directly above or in front of the takeoff foot. (1)
  • The thigh of the free leg swings actively forwards. (2)

Penetration Phase

Objective

  • To transfer maximum energy to the pole.

Technical characteristics

  • Vaulter “freezes” in the takeoff position.
  • Long pendulums are created around both the shoulders and the hips. (1)
  • Left-arm is pushed forwards and upwards. (2)
  • The right arm is fully extended.

Rock-back Phase

Objective

  • To achieve maximum bend of the pole (storing energy)  
  • To position the body to utilize the stored energy.

Technical characteristics

  • Both legs are bent and drawn to the chest.
  • Both arms are extended.
  • Back is roughly parallel to the ground.

Stretch and Turn Phase

Objective

  • To use energy from the pole to lift the vaulter.

Technical characteristics

  • The body moves from the “L” to the “I” position.
  • Right arm is extended, left arm bends with the elbow on the right side of the pole.
  • Hips pass close to the pole. •Turn is commenced with the pull of both arms.
  • The body turns to face the bar.

Bar Clearance / Landing Phase

Objective

  • To gain maximum height after the release of the pole and clear the bar.

Technical characteristics

  • Push-off from the pole is with the right arm.
  • Bar is crossed in an arched (1) or bent (2) position.
  • Body is straightened after crossing the bar.
  • Landing is on the back.