Lesson 1, Topic 1
In Progress

Types of exercises

Equipment

Isometric leg press machine

Specialised equipment is very useful. This will not guarantee results if your program is not well structured, athlete is not motivated, and there poor supervision. If possible, use little or no equipment as long as the program is carefully and knowledgeably designed for athletes need and there is adequate motivation.

Types of exercises
• Isometric
• Isotonic
• Isokinetic
• Plyometrics
• Manual Resistance
• Concentric/Eccentric Contraction
• Open / Closed Chain

Isometric exercises

Isometric exercises

These are exercises that does not result in any movement of the joint. This are done during the initial stages of rehabilitation against a fixed resistance. They are the least effective form of strength improvement. Isometric exercises are static since there is no movement, for example wall press and stationery press.

Isotonic exercises

In these exercises unlike isometric joints are moved through a range of motion against fixed weights. The resistance is fixed but the speed of movement is variable, hence there are dynamic movements. Greatest strength gain takes place in the initial movement as the muscle attempts to overcome resistance, least strength gains are at the mid point examples includes bench press, arm curls and heel raises.

Isokinetic

Isokinetic exercises using a machine

These are exercises where there is variable resistance and the speed of motion is set. Resistance accommodates to match the force applied and dynamic contractions since there is maintenance of constant velocity. In these type of exercises visual readouts are possible hence evaluating progress and acts as a powerful psychological boost to athletes.

Plyometric

Plyometric exercise/ box jump

These are a variety of exercises that utilize explosive movements to increase athletic power. They maximize the strength reflex, example power jumps, leaps, bounds, throwing weighted object- medicine ball. These exercises should be performed 2 to 3 times a week to all full recovery from the neuromuscular load. Before prescribing plyometrics, strength should be attained to provide stability.

Plyometric reflex

The muscle is fully stretched immediately preceding the shortening of it, an eccentric contraction occurs immediately before the concentric contraction. The greater the stretch put on the muscle from its resting length immediately before contraction the greater the load the muscle can lift or overcome. Intensity is more important than volume.

Resistance training

In this type of exercise, the provider adjusts the speed of movement and resistance to that best suited to athlete’s needs, It will vary according to the stage of rehabilitation and fatigue related to the load.

Open chain exercises

Exercise where the distal segment is not fixed and is freely moving in space. They are functional for upper extremity for example,leg extension, leg flexion, adduction/ addictions exercise machines, functional activities such as throwing and jumping.

Closed chain exercises

These are exercises where distal segment is fixed. They are functional for lower extremities such as standing leg press, lunges, slide boards, and therapy balls.