Lesson 1, Topic 1
In Progress

Sports nutrition

Diet meet the demands placed on the body by training

  • Strength: Repair of destroyed muscle structure – Protein
  • Endurance: Refill of Energy storage – CH (liver; muscle)

An athlete must consume sufficient energy

  • to maintain the stores of energy within the muscles
  • to help to prevent fatigue

Good nutrition (quality and fresh food) is very important

It is essential that athletes pay constant attention to eating habits.

The diet should meet the training demands to be in good health and shape

The Energy Balance

In addition to the quality, the amount of calories has to be taken into account

Balance between the

  • energy intake (calories in)
  • energy output (calories used).


Amount of energy in food = calories

1 calorie

  • Energy needed to increase the temperature of 1 gram of air-free water by 1 °C with an atmospheric pressure of 1 atmosphere
  Food componentEnergy density
 Fat & Oils9
 Ethanol (drinking alcohol)7
 Organic acids3
 Polyols  (sugar alcohols, sweeteners)2.4


  • Carbohydrate •Energy food
  • Protein •Growth and repair food
  • Fat •Slow energy food
  • Vitamins
  • Minerals Water
  • Fibre

The Athlete’s Diet

The Digestive System- Changing Food to Fuel


  • Needed daily but only in tiny amounts
  • They play an important part in many chemical processes that take place in the body
  • Even slightly low vitamin levels can reduce athletic performance
  • How food is stored and cooked determines how many vitamins are lost


Vitamins are needed in small daily amounts


  • Calcium
  • Sodium
  • Potassium
  • Iron
  • Iodine

A good, balanced diet will provide all the vitamins and minerals a person needs.


  • Important Component of our diets
  • Dietary fiber is not a “nutrient”
  • Soluble
  • Insoluble – Pass through the body without being absorbed

Effects of fibres

Improved bowel function •

  • Prevents constipation
  • Soluble Fibers improve blood glucose level •

Slow digestion and absorption of CH

Reduced blood cholesterol

  • Prevention of Coronary Heart Defect (CHD)


  • About two-thirds of your body is water
  • Each cell of your body contains water
  • Your blood is water with •minerals, vitamins, proteins and blood cells floating in it
  • You can live for several weeks without food •you will die within a few days without water
  • Water is one of the most important nutrients required by the body
  • Dehydration – performance is reduced if the body’s water requirements are not met, 2% of body weight 
  • Control that you take in the required amount of water, Thermoregulation (Environment: Heat; Altitude), Physical activity by controlling your 24 hours urine volume: at least 2000ml  
  • Drink small amounts regularly and according to needs.

The Healthy Balanced Diet

To meet

  • Energy Balance
  • Nutrient Balance each individual must take in all the nutrients that they need to be healthy


  • lots of different types of food
  • fresh food rather than ready prepared, canned or frozen foods
  • high proportion of carbohydrate-rich, low Glycemic Index foods.

The Healthy Balanced Diet

  • ‘Eat a rainbow’ of fruits and vegetables
  • Grill, steam or bake foods •avoid boiling or frying
  • Avoid •fatty meals •sweets or salty snacks
  • Check fiber intake
  • Flavor •with herbs and spices rather than salt
  • Drink •small amounts of water fruit juices often.

Pre-Training and Pre-Competition Nutrition– Eating to Achieve Potential

  • Eat a small easily digested meal
  • Eat about two to three and a half hours before activity
  • Restrict fats and proteins •slowly digested
  • Avoid foods that form gas in the digestive system
  • Drink small amounts of water often before and during •prolonged endurance performance •several efforts in a single day e.g. Combined Events.

Post-Training / Competition Nutrition– Eating to Recover and Adapt

Recovery after a training session / competition

  • beginning of the process of adaptation
  • becomes part of the preparation for next training / competition

Replace sweat loss

  • fluids
  • salts


  • about 1.2 – 1.5 litres of fluid for every kg of weight lost in exercise


  • a small amount of high quality protein with carbohydrates •as soon as practical.