Lesson 1, Topic 1
In Progress

Middle and long distance running

The structure of a middle and long-distance stride is similar to a sprint stride e.g. “grasping/pulling with the following velocity related changes/differences:

  • Foot position at touchdown varies with the running pace.
  • Free leg swings forwards with an open knee angle (the lower leg nearly parallel to the ground). -Full extension of the hip, knees, and feet in the drive phase, can be complete (e.g. = 7.1 – 7.9 m/s “middle distance”).Can be incomplete (e.g. 5.2 – 5.7 m/s / “long-distance” / marathon).
  • Longer rear swing phase in comparison to high speed running (e.g. 9.5 – 10.4 m/sec “sprints”)
  • Knee lift is lower.
  • Arm movement is less pronounced with little or no elbow extension.

Velocity related running stride efficiency

Velocity (decrease) related changes: 

  Decrease of Stride length(SL) to a higher degree than decrease of stride frequency (SF) Smaller flight phase / support phase ratio

  • Longer contact time
  • Shorter flight phase

Lower knee lift •Smaller amplitude of arm swing •Greater smallest knee joint angle during swing phase

Velocity related Foot Placement


To achieve efficient velocity related foot action.


  • Middle (or even the ball) of the foot strikes first in shorter, faster races. (4)

The slower the speed

  • First ground contact more to the rear at the outer edge of the foot (1-3)
  • The foot rolls over and up to the tip of the shoe for takeoff. (5)
  • Athlete touches the ground with the entire sole of his foot during mid-support phases
  • Ground contact phases getting longer

Neuronal Variability

1Marathon02:15:25 5 26 
   02:02:575 7 5
210 km29:31.78 5 65 
   26:17.536 3 5
3800m1:53.28 7 14 
   1:40.917 9 4
4400m47.608 44 
 43.189 33
5100m10.49 9 53 
   9.5810 4 3

5 segments of 30 m each with the velocity of  Sudden pace increase (initiated by increased arm-frequence)  “

  • At cones
  • acoustic signal by the coach
  • competition simulation; “opponent” or athlete increases pace

Pulse Measurement


  • To measure the pulse rate to assist with correct loading in aerobic training.


  • Pulse is located at the wrist or neck
  • Index or middle finger are used for measuring, not the thumb
  • Heartbeats are counted for 10 seconds. Multiplication by 6 gives the beats per minute (bpm)
  • Pulse rate should be taken within the window of 15 seconds of the end of a load.
Continuous Run (CR)VolumeIntensity PR (10”)
CR regenerative15’ – 30’20
Long Slow Distance (LSD)90’ +++20 – 23
CR medium pace30’ – 60’25
Fast CR30’ – 45’28