Lesson 1, Topic 1
In Progress

Horizontal Jumps

Long jump is divided into the following phases:

APPROACH, TAKE OFF, FLIGHT and LANDING.

Approach phase: jumper accelerates to maximum “transferable” speed.

Takeoff phase:    

  •  jumper generates vertical velocity
  • minimizes the loss of horizontal velocity.

Flight phase: jumper prepares for landing.

  • Three different techniques can be used: sail, hang and hitch-kick.

Landing phase: jumper maximizes the potential distance of the flight path

  • Minimizes the “loss upon landing”.

APPROACH PHASE

Objective

To achieve maximum “transferable” speed.

Technical characteristics

  • Approach length varies between,10 strides (for beginners), More than 20 strides (for top class jumpers).
  • Running technique is similar to sprinting.
  • Speed increases continuously until the take off-board.

Take off phase

Objective

  • To maximize vertical velocity and
  • To minimize loss in horizontal velocity.

Technical characteristics

  • The foot plant is active and quick with a “down and back” motion. (1)
  • Take off time is minimized, minimum bending of the takeoff leg.
  • The thigh of the free leg is driven to the horizontal position. (2)
  • Ankle, knee, and hip joints are fully extended.

Touch down

  • Foot plant is active and quick with a pulling  « down and back » motion.

Takeoff

  • Thigh of the free leg is driven to the horizontal position

Flight Phase Sail Technique

Objective

To prepare for an efficient landing.

Technical characteristics

  • Free leg is held in the takeoff position. 
  • Trunk remains upright and vertical.
  • Take off leg trails during most of the flight.
  • Take off leg is bent and drawn forwards and upwards near the end of the flight.
  • Both legs are extended forwards for landing.

Flight Phase Hang Technique

Objectives

  • To prepare for an efficient landing.

Technical characteristics

  • Free leg is lowered by rotating at the hip joint.
  • Hips are pushed forwards.
  • Take off leg is parallel to the free leg.
  • Arms are in an upward-backward position.

Flight Phase Hitch-kick Technique

Objective

  • To prepare for an efficient landing.

Technical characteristics

  • Running action continues in the air supported by arm swing. 
  • Stride rhythm of the approach should not be changed.
  • Running action must be finished at landing, with both legs extended forward.
  • Variations: 1 1/2 or 2 1/2 or 3 1/2 steps during the flight.

Landing

Objective

  • To minimize the loss of distance.

Technical characteristics

  • Legs are almost fully extended.
  • Trunk is bent forward.
  • Arms are drawn backward.
  • Hips are pushed forwards toward the touchdown point.

Tripple jump

The triple jump is divided into the following main phases

  • Approach
  • Hop
  • Step
  • Jump

Hop, step and jump phases can each be divided: 

  • Take off
  • Flight
  • Landing.

Approach Phase

Objective

  • To reach maximum “transferable” velocity and position the body for the takeoff

Technical characteristics

  • Approach length varies,10 strides (for beginners), more than 20 strides (for top class jumpers)
  • Running technique is similar to sprinting
  • Velocity is increased continuously throughout the approach
  • Stride frequency is increased at the end of the approach
  • Foot plant is active and quick with a ‘down and back’ motion.

Hop Phase

Objective

  • To achieve a long, f l a t  flight with a minimal loss of horizontal velocity

Technical characteristics

  • Thigh of the free leg is driven to the horizontal position
  • Take off direction is forward – not upward (1)
  • Free leg is drawn back
  • Take off leg is drawn forwards-upwards then extended forwards to prepare for touchdown
  • Trunk is kept upright.

Hop – (Forward) Take off

  • Foot plant active & quick with ‘down and back’ motion
  • Thigh of the free leg is driven to the horizontal position
  • Take off direction is forward, not upward.

Hop – Flight

Free leg is drawn back
Take off leg is drawn forwards-upwards.

Hop – Touchdown

  • Take off leg is extended forwards and for touchdown
  • Foot plant is active and quick with a ‘down and back’ motion
  • Trunk is kept upright.

Step Phase

Objective

  • To equal the duration of the hop and achieve the same height as the hop

Technical characteristics

  • Foot plant is active and quick with a ‘down and back’ motion.
  • Double arm swing is used if possible
  • Thigh of the free leg is higher than horizontal
  • Trunk position is upright •Free leg is extended forwards-downwards

Step takeoff

  • Foot plant is active and quick with a ‘down and back’ motion
  • Free leg thigh drives forwards and upwards
  • Double arm swing is used if possible.

Step – Flight

  • Thigh of the free leg should be higher than horizontal
  • Trunk position is upright.

Step – Touchdown

  • Free leg is extended forwards-downwards

Jump Phase

Objective

  • To take off powerfully at an optimum take off angle

Technical characteristics

  • Foot plant is active and quick with a ‘down and back’ motion
  • Double arm action is used if possible
  • Body position is upright
  • Hang or sail technique is used in the air
  • Legs are almost fully extended at landing.

Jump take off

  • Foot plant is active and quick with a ‘down and back’ motion
  • Support leg straightens during take off.

Jump – Flight

  • Body position is upright
  • Hang or sail technique are used in the air.

Landing

Athlete should relax and ‘sink’ over the heels.