Lesson 1, Topic 1
In Progress

Fitness Components

Individual training plan



The ability to carry out complicated movements

  • often involving different body parts at same time
  • efficiently and accurately

Involves the neuro-muscular system working efficiently with the correct

  • Spatial patterns
  • Timing
  • Dynamics

   A skill, can be improved through training.


Maximum Strength

  • “The greatest force that can be exerted in a single voluntary contraction.[…] Equated to the 1 RM in a concentric contraction.” Kemp: Weight Training for speed-strength. p.3

Speed Strength

  • “The ability to exert maximal force during high-speed movements” Baechle: Essentials of strength training and conditioning, p.319

Strength Endurance

  • “The capacity to maintain the quality of the muscle’s contractile force.” Holman: The theory and practice of endurance training p. 5

Reactive Strength

  • “The ability to utilize the muscle pre-stretch in a stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) movement […] and to quickly switch from an eccentric (stretching) contraction to a concentric (shortening) contraction […].” Young: Training for speed/strength: Heavy vs light loads ; p. 34  

Terms used in Weight Training:


  • The load (kg) a muscle or group of muscles is required to move


  • The number of times (Reps) an exercise is performed


  • A specified number of repetitions comprise one set. e.g. three sets of ten reps of a Back Squat would be written:3 (10 x 50kg) R: 5’

Development of Strength

Maximum Strength and Speed Strength

  • Weight training with Free Weights
  • Stiff-leg Dead-lift and the Squats

Reactive Strength

  • Involves storage of energy and reflex actions
  • Exercises to develop the SSC
  • Bounding, Hopping

Strength Endurance

  • Circuit training
  • Activities with an emphasis on duration.


Maximal speed

  • As fast as you can 
  • whole body
  • limb movement (“fast arm”)

Optimal speed (transferable speed)

  • controlled speed in the approach to a jump (take off)

Acceleration speed

  • rate of change in speed

Reaction time

  • time between stimulus and the first visible reaction of the athlete

Speed endurance

  • “Faculty for coordinating the speed of contraction in the climate of endurance factors.” Holman: The theory and practice of endurance training p.5 •Deceleration at the end of 100m 

Factors affecting running speed

Speed = Stride Length x Stride Frequency

Stride Length determined by:

  • Height
  • Limb length
  • Musculoskeletal injuries
  • Flexibility
  • Posture
  • Overstriding = breaking force

Stride Frequency determined by:

  • Physiology
  • CNS speed
  • Muscle fiber type
  • Limb length.

Developing & Testing  Maximal Running Speed

  • Flying 30s – for developing testing maximal speed running Example: 2 (3 x flying 30 m max) R: 6’ SR: 7’

Athletes with a low training age

  • Middle maximal speed section may be less than 30m Example: 2 (2 x flying 10m max) R: 4’ SR: 7’

Reaction time

The interval from the presentation of a stimulus to the initiation of the response.”Kent: Oxford dictionary of sports science and medicine; p.366

General Endurance

Predominant aerobic energy supply mechanism

“Ability to perform physical work for extended periods of time; cardiovascular endurance isinfluenced by an individual’s Vo2max” Anshel: Dictionary of the sports and exercise sciences. p.53 

Speed Endurance

Predominant anaerobic lactic energy supply mechanism (e.g. 100m)

“The faculty for coordinating the speed of contraction in the climate of endurance factors.” Hollmann: The theory and practice of endurance training, p.5


“Event (duration; intensity) specific share of energy supply mechanism”e.g. 400m

distanceATP / CRPH %anaerobic-lac %aerobic %
100 m25705
400 m124345
800 m103060

Development of Endurance

Repetitions •The total number of repetitions in a session e.g. “sets”

Duration •Length of time or distance of one repetition

Intensity •Speed, pace or velocity of the repetitions

Recovery •Time of intervals between repetitions and sets

Density“Relation of working and recovery phases of training expressed in time in between” Bompa: Theory and methodology of training p.90

Recovery activity •Can vary from a walk to easy running (PR: 20/10”) •


  • The range of motion of a joint
  • “[…] a measure of the ability of the muscle-tendon units to elongate within the physical restrictions of the joint.” Kent: Oxford dictionary of sports science and medicine. P. 171
  • Decreases with age (already after puberty !)
  • Does not necessarily reduce the risk of injury
  • Can be improved by appropriate stretching

Types of Flexibility training

Flexibility exercises in the warm up

Active, dynamic ‘mobilisation exercises’ for the warm up  

  • Access the athletes’ existing range of motion (ROM)
  • Prepare the body for the dynamic activity about to be undertaken

Flexibility exercises to increase ROM. These exercises are aimed primarily at a long term programme to increase the range of motion (ROM)

  • In a joint or series of joint
  • be part of a cool down to a session
  • form a separate flexibility session itself.

Factors affecting flexibility

•Genetic inheritance •Muscle mass and elasticity •Body type and physique •Age •Gender •Injury •Joint structure •Training,•Experience •Coordination •Fatigue •Motivation •Relaxation •Temperature •Time of day •Clothing

Flexibility in the Warm Up

  • Mobilization exercises as part of the warm up

Functional flexibility §No static stretching in the warm up.

Developing Flexibility

Specific flexibility exercises increase the range of motion (ROM) through static stretching

  • in a joint
  • In a series of joints

Can be done •within the cool down

  • hold stretch for 6-10 seconds
  • as part of a specific flexibility training session hold for 15 -30 seconds

Non static stretches in the warm up