Energy for exercising
If you are like most people, there are not enough hours in the day, and you do not always have the energy you need to accomplish everything. We need energy for the things we do. There are three major energy systems the body utilizes:
- Aerobic system
- Anaerobic (lactate) system
- ATP (PC) system (immediate use)
These three systems work together, often simultaneously, and the process is like trying to solve a difficult calculus equation: quite complex, to say the least. A substance known as ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate) is sort of the building block that aids in human movement. It should be noted that the ATP (PC) system is anaerobic as well. The energy systems are not independent, and which one dominates depends on two main factors: the time spent exercising and intensity.
Let us begin with the system the body goes to first. Your basal metabolic rate (BMR) is how much energy you expend at rest. This is important to know because it can be increased by anaerobic exercise. The ATP (PC) system is used for very short bursts of energy of a few seconds, such as throwing an object far or sprinting on a run in football. Your body uses a substance called creatine phosphate (PCr) for these short periods. However, the body does not have much of this substance, so then it calls on the carbs of the anaerobic system.
So now that the ATP(PC) system has worked for short bursts of energy, the body moves on to the second system, which is the anaerobic system, meaning without oxygen. Have you ever watched a 400-meter race (one lap) and cheered as the runners tightened up in the straightaway and did their best to finish? There is a reason for this phenomenon. Lactic acid is a substance that builds up in the runners’ bodies after about 36 seconds, but the race itself takes over 40 seconds. Lactic acid is a byproduct of anaerobic, meaning without oxygen, activity.
Finally, the body can utilize the aerobic system, which is the most complex of the three systems and utilizes oxygen. An athlete may sustain an aerobic activity as a general rule much longer than an anaerobic activity. For example, a runner could go for a moderately paced run or take an aerobics class for a full hour. However, a sprinter might get winded and have to rest after a few full out sprints of 100 meters. This is a commonly used system during recreational activities since it can move from the main source of energy to excess fat.