Introduction to Functional Anatomy &Exercise Physiology
- Anatomy –the study of structure and organization of the body. Functional anatomy –the study of anatomy in its relation to function, morphophysiology, physiological anatomy.
- The body is really a complex organism consisting of systems.
- When training, there is a specific system you address either anatomical or physiological.
- Muscles are tissues attached to the skeletal system to facilitate the movement of the body.
- About 700 named muscles and constitute half of the body mass.
Characteristics of muscles
- Contractile & Elastic
- They work antagonistically and in pairs
Function of muscles
- Movement – The skeletal system is moved by contraction and relaxation of muscles.
- Tendons at the end of each muscle attach bones to muscles . Muscles allow, breathing , movement and standing still.
How muscles pull
- Dynamic contractions involve
- A change in muscle length
- Movement at a joint or joints
Muscle Fiber types and development
- There are three different types of muscles fibers in a human body namely:
- -Intermediary twitch
In each and every human being there should be a dominant one and they can be improved through training.
Muscle Twitch Fibres are influenced by
- Training programs
- These determine the kind of events you can be able to participate in and be competitive without straining yourself much during training and competition.
Muscles pull (contracts ) when signals from the nervous system tell them to It is composed of the brain, spinal cord, and spinal nerves. The nervous system allows us to think and move, signals injuries as well since pain receptors are received from the same source. It is the basis of any action and all learning processes.
- This is the study on how the human body functions during activities.
- These are adaptations that take place as the body begins to exercise.
- There are basic physiological differences between individuals.
- Muscles work like engines burning food for the body to produce energy.
- These systems work hand in hand with the type of muscle fibers within an individual athlete.
- Designing training programs play mainly with energy systems.
- The relative contribution of an energy system to a particular physical activity depends on energy requirements, which directly related to the intensity and duration of the exercise.
- Different events have a different load (Intensity and volume).
- Predominant aerobic: Marathon
- Predominant anaerobic lactic: 100m
- Predominant ATP / CP: 30 m